Home » Industry Analysis
Category Archives: Industry Analysis
At Georgia Tech professor Mulford has made available some great resources.
The spreadsheets with trailing data for various industries can help you back-up your valuation assumptions or provide benchmarking data.
Why do industry averages matter?
The pervasive effect of reversion to the (industry) mean is stronger than many good competitive positions as barriers to entry tend to get broken down. On the positive side, terrible businesses generally get a break when better management comes in. Terrible industries profit when raw materials become cheaper or technology makes capex less burdensome. As a result both negative and positive ROIC’s tend towards their cost of capital.
Extrapolating a firm’s current margins and asset turnover is a capital mistake.
Change in Median ROIC by Quintile (2000 to 2010)
What can you find?
Per industry data on:
- Operating cash margins
- Free cash margins
- Net margins
- Cash as % of revenue
- SGA as % of revenue
- Cash cycles
- Receivable cycles
Follow the link, use and enjoy!
In the economist’s edition of this week, you can find a special report on outsourcing and offshoring, including two interesting articles on Manufacturing and Services. Thinking about the earlier posts on the Demise of Manufacturing this is yet another interesting development as mutual reinforcing multipliers (manufacturing attracts services and vice versa) previously discussed can stimulate job growth now in mature markets.
Source: McKinsey Global Institute
Services and Production Move Back to Mature Markets
The oversupply of qualified workers in mature markets in distress has a depressing impact on their salary expectations and governments are moving to make labor more flexible, countries like Portugal and Spain are becoming more attractive. Portugal for example is turning into a service hub for Brazil’s firms (it’s already a services provider, production hub and export portal to the booming markets of Angola and Mozambique). As Chinese and Brazilian laborers demand higher pay, this development could accelerate.
Production: Minimizing Supply Chain Risk and Vicinity to End Markets
However the labor cost arbitrage is becoming a less important driver for outsourcing decisions. Manufacturers want to be close to their end markets and minimize supply chain risks. New less expensive technology will make this increasingly possible.
Think of the decreasing costs of robots and 3D printing, which will further improve the labor costs per product and make local production more feasible. A German car manufacturer went from 75.000 assembly workers in the 90s to 25.000 nowadays, making labor costs per product lower than in Portugal for example, even though salaries are around 25% of German salaries.
On the long run, 3D printing will inevitably lead to even less labor intensive production processes and more local production. So despite business activity moving back to mature markets, political challenges of keeping unemployment low won’t go away.
Enjoy and learn from this discussion between Prof. Bruce Greenwald and Richard Koo at the CIGI conference: The Great Recession: Structural and Cyclical Causes
While Richard Koo is sure weak balance sheets are the issue, Greenwald disagrees and further elaborates on his thesis, the underlying problem is the demise of manufacturing.
I am always interested in comprehensive macro scenarios which I can use to test the business model of my investments or clients.
Manufacturers Suffered More from the Crisis Than Debtors
Greenwald, says that balance sheets are the problem in any recession, however now balance sheets are repaired (US, UK) the recession still continues. Evidence shows the countries that suffered most from the worldwide crisis were not the countries with a large bubble (UK, US), but countries with relatively sounds balance sheets.
- Japan suffered a 7% drop in GDP while Japanese companies had very healthy Balance Sheets (significant negative debt)
- and Finland (a 13% drop in GDP from 2008-2010, my add.)
- Natural Resources countries also suffered, like Canada (My add. GDP drop -13%)
- US (-2%) and the UK (-6%)
Is Manufacturing the new Agriculture?
Greenwald draws the parallel with agriculture. This industry suffered enormous productivity gains and limited increase in worldwide demand.
This same development is now happening in manufacturing.
And growing in a dying industry is an extremely difficult thing to do…
Agriculture as % of GDP development since 1960. I’ve included the countries mentioned. Source: Google, Worldbank.
Greenwald says: productivity increases annually with 5-7%, however worldwide demand merely grows at best 2-3%. Capital expenditures (robots, technology, software) have come down dramatically the last decade, and so productivity improvements become less capital intensive…
Ok, ok what’s new you might ask…manufacturing usually declines as a % of GDP as a country moves up the income ladder and more and more countries move up this ladder…
Well there is something new, remember the earlier post on Greenwald’s thesis? The way out of the crisis and sustaining/increasing employment for manufacturing economies like Germany is selling the production surplus through exports.
However exports are a zero sum game between surplus and deficit countries…
Especially countries with a strong manufacturing base (read: labor unions, industry lobbies) are resisting the decline in jobs and revenues as hard as they can through exports, helped by politicians that aim to keep unemployments at bay.
The Spender of Last Resort Ran Out of Cash!
Now, what changed? Greenwald tells us US households have been eating the world surpluses up to 2008. Unfortunately they cannot finance a net deficit any longer through rising house prices and a zero savings rate. And if there is nobody in the world to eat the net export surpluses of manufacturing countries, the world economy will continue to have problems to grow until manufacturing countries make the explicit choice to change into a more service based economy.
This development has a chronic deflationary pressure on manufactured goods…
So the Remedy is a Focus on Services?
The remedy according to Greenwald is changing the economic structure of manufacturing surplus economies like Germany, China and Japan to focused (non-financial) service sectors like medical care, education. However this takes focus from government and bold decision making (read: confronting labor unions and industry lobbies).
Corroborative Inquiry: McKinsey on Manufacturing
Now all this sounds like a solid storyline from a highly respected (also by me) professor. But can we check some facts?
Very conveniently McKinsey’s Global Institute recently published a report named: Manufacturing the future: The next era of global growth and innovation, full of interesting statistics actually supporting Greenwald’s thesis.
Where McKinsey and Greenwald grow apart is the storyline on the future… So even though McKinsey draws similar conclusions as Greenwald from economic data, their overall conclusion (and productivity growth estimate) sounds less dramatic.
McKinsey explicitly mentions: Manufacturing is entering a dynamic new phase. As a new global consuming class emerges in developing nations, and innovations spark additional demand, global manufacturers will have substantial new opportunities—but in a much more uncertain environment.
Actually this conclusion sounds like manufacturing is set for a new growth spurt….not decline! Well let’s just use their facts.
Source: McKinsey Global Institute
So how does McKinsey’s data support Greenwald’s thesis?
McKinsey: “Manufacturing contributes disproportionally to exports, innovation and productivity growth.” Which is supported by Exhibit E2 and 13 as per above and below.
Per above we can see only 14% of employment (in advanced economies) is in manufacturing, whereas 37% of productivity growth comes from manufacturing (EU-15).
Per below we see most exports are still manufactured goods. According to Greenwald high productivity and high exports have a negative impact on manufacturers and jobs in manufacturing.
Source: McKinsey Global Institute
So How Does the Future Look?
According to McKinsey, up to 2025 about 1.8 bln. people will enter the consumer class, which is about 140 mln new consumers per year or a CAGR of 3.8%. Not bad! However this is similar to the last 20 years.
Furthermore McKinsey estimates consumption will rise 3.54% so consumption per capita will actually fall from 16k to 15k per capita. Did they forget inflation? Or does inflation offset a decrease in overall income due to growth coming mainly from low income countries? Let’s assume the latter…
As the 3.54% is slightly above Greenwald’s 3% estimate, but far below the 7% productivity gain in manufacturing, the deflationary pressure still makes sense…or am I missing something?
Source: McKinsey Global Institute
Now for the Productivity Gains? Are they Supported by Historical Evidence?
McKinsey mentions productivity gains have been at an average of 2.7% p.a. which does not tie in with Greenwald’s 5-7%.
However from the graph we can see a spread between US productivity growth and real value added of 1 – 4%. If this spread persists, this will probably impact pricing of manufactured goods.
Source: McKinsey Global Institute
This conclusion could be supported by exhibit 15: productivity gains were passed on to consumers through lower prices of consumer durables (refrigerators, cars etc.).
Source: McKinsey Global Institute
So could Greenwald be right? I don’t know. It sounds like a logical explanation. More important is to me…What can I learn from this?
I will have to think about the consequences for employees, companies and investors. Next to job losses of the lower skilled due to productivity gains, the multiplier effect of manufacturing could turn into a serious negative force following manufacturing decline, which will impact also service sector jobs and revenues.
As an investor I will have to look more critical at service sector companies and try to find out, whether the companies aren’t built too much around manufacturing clients. Who are the key clients? What is their competitive position? Will they still be clients in different manufacturing landscape? Why? Why not?
If I am investing in a manufacturer…I will not expect productivity gains to be passed on to me, the shareholder, but most probably to the clients. Overcapacity will also lead to a landscape for high end and low costs producers (e.g. think fashion and furniture): will my producers be stuck in the middle or are they already well positioned? Will capital expenditures be also lower in the future (deflation will also impact capital goods) or will companies have to spend more frequently to keep up with the productivity race.
Please let me know if I made mistakes, whether you disagree, or want to add to the scenario. Also read: Worse Than the Great Depression: What Experts Are Missing About American Manufacturing Decline by ATKINSON, STEWART, ANDES, AND EZELL
Bruce Greenwald: Germany and the Netherlands should leave the Euro; The Global Demise of Manufacturing is the Real Economic Problem
Professor of Bruce C. Greenwald, Robert Heilbrunn Professor of Finance and Asset Management at Columbia Business School gave some very interesting interviews recently.
Prof. Greenwald is generally known for his value investing expertise, however in these interviews he offers us an different macro view on the euro-zone and the causes for the continuing world economy’s crises. I have made a limited transcript of the interviews.
International Trade Imbalances Are a Bigger Problem
Today there are some real problems in the world economy that have nothing to do with the financial crisis or unhealthy balance sheets.
The trade imbalances are at the heart of the economic decline and this is not a new phenomenon:
- Japan: for 50 years a net exporter, managing their currency
- China: grows through exports by keeping the Yuan at bay
- Germany: stays in the euro-zone keeping its exports too cheap
- Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and South Korea are since the Asian currency crisis (’97) running surpluses through a currency reduction of 50%
Adding up the surpluses of the oil exporters, there should be also various countries running deficits as all global trade accounts balance to 0.
A Short History of Deficits
Who runs these deficits then? Well after ’97 when Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and South Korea went from deficit to surplus, the deficits went to Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Russia and we remember what happened to them around the turn of the century. They collapsed! Since then, they have all run surpluses.
During the 2000s the deficit running countries became the US and to a lesser extent the UK and the euro-zone. Financed by households living beyond their means, saving 0% and eating away household equity produced by the housing bubbles. Now the housing bubbles have deflated or stabilized and households are saving again, while demand has collapsed and everybody is adjusting.
The Difficulty in The Euro-Zone
Competitive Germany and the Netherlands are tied into the euro area with less competitive countries (Portugal, Spain, Italy, France etc.)
- When countries have significant deficits, it is extremely difficult to sustain full employment.
- Germany is in effect exporting any job problem it might have to less competitive countries in the euro area.
- These countries cannot protect themselves, because they cannot depreciate their currency
As long as Germany keeps running account surpluses, less competitive countries won’t have healthy demand growth. And as they cannot depreciate their currency they will have to make another fundamental change: lower real wages.
And Germany is not going to give away its economic power so easily. It has a very powerful manufacturing sector growing productivity at 5-7%. As domestic demand just grows 1% and globally it grows just 2-3%, they have to export. Otherwise manufacturing dies.
The Underlying Problem is The Decline of Manufacturing
The same goes for China, Japan, South-Korea etc. transmitting deflationary pressures overseas.
The underlying problem of global imbalances is the demise of manufacturing and the enormous vested interests in this economic sector. Governments try their best to protect manufacturing jobs by stimulating exports similar to the protection of agriculture in the depression years. However manufacturers are increasing productivity at a higher speed than global demand, leading to a significant deflationary pressure.
As long as the net exporters don’t find jobs in the service sector for their displaced manufacturing workers, there will be no solution for this crisis.
The other part of the problem is the dependency of deficit countries on external financing, where these countries are at the mercy of their external creditors. Living beyond their means becomes virtually impossible as long as they run a deficit and they have to become surplus countries without being able to depreciate their currencies.
So essentially, what is required from countries like Italy and Spain, is becoming more competitive than Germany through productivity gains. This is extremely difficult and probably not going to happen. The other painful way out is a decline in real wage rates which is a very difficult path, because households will feel real pain, losing their purchasing power.
The only way out is currency depreciation. This can be done the easy way or the hard way:
The easy way out:
- Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark (maybe France) leave the euro and appreciate their currency.
- The euro will fall, which will fix the problem for the uncompetitive countries.
- As the debt of these countries is denominated in euros, the burden becomes more bearable.
- Of course this scenario leads economic shocks for the leavers as exports will fall and their investments in euro will decline.
However prof. Greenwald sees this solution as the least painful and more orderly way to solve the problem as exits by the weaker countries will lead to defaults, serious recessions and even larger problems for German manufacturing.
Greenwald on Italy in Specific
Greenwald on the future of the US economy (But this could easily apply to Europe’s economy as well)
Not so long ago I mentioned we should probably pay much more attention to short sellers.
Besides Chanos vs. HP there is another interesting battle unfolding: Ackman vs. Herbalife. Ackman stated he has over a billion USD invested in this short position and he said he’s donating his personal profits to charity.
At first glance, Herbalife never looked healthier, with Gross Margins around 80%! And Returns on Assets and Equity well into the double digits for years.
Ackman and his team at Pershing Square however have analyzed the company for two years and don’t think the financials add up. Watch and download their analysis here: http://factsaboutherbalife.com/
See also Ackman interviewed on CNBC: http://video.cnbc.com/gallery/?video=3000136735
And Ackman interviewed on Bloomberg: http://tinyurl.com/d4p3os2
Some critics of Ackman say: Herbalife runs a sustainable pyramid scheme.
“Here is where I believe Ackman may have made a strategic error. Short of an external force like the FTC or the SEC, there is nothing that stops Herbalife from profitably operating a pyramid scheme. The people targeted by Herbalife certainly do not read the financial press or read 343 slide presentations. There will always be a supply of uninformed victims for the Herbalife sustainable pyramid scheme. Herbalife is certainly not going to collapse under its own weight, given that it controls its diet of victims rigorously.”
Check the arguments here. http://tinyurl.com/dxpbh6r
Herbalife reacted as follows: “Today’s presentation was a malicious attack on Herbalife’s business model based largely on outdated, distorted and inaccurate information. Herbalife operates with the highest ethical and quality standards, and our management and our board are constantly reviewing our business practices and products. Herbalife also hires independent, outside experts to ensure our operations are in full compliance with laws and regulations. Herbalife is not an illegal pyramid scheme.”
Now is Herbalife cooking the books or have Ackman and his team got it wrong this time? Judge for yourself.
Full Disclosure: I have no position in Herbalife